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ѵҹ¡Ш仵ǹҧ ͧš駺Թ 㹹 ҡ ѵҧԴդᵡҧѹѴ ҧԴդ¤֧ѹҡԴ繪Դǡѹ  ҧԴաШŤͺ»  ҨСШ¢ջ
         ѡѵʵդ繷еͧṡѵҧ ҹ͡ҡѹ´ҡشҷöз  Ш繨еͧ֡ѵҧ ùӪѭ繪ͷШӷͧ蹵ҧ 繪ҡŹ  ҨԴѭ ж¡ѵЪԴҧѹ ͧҡ֡ҷҧԷʵ 繵ͧ´ҧҡ ѧ鹨֧աҧѡࡳ㹡èѴǴСõ駪ѵҧ Ѵ ҹ繪ҡ繷Ѻ¹ѡԷʵšҡشҷз
        Ԫ͹ءԸҹѵ (animal taxonomy) Ң˹觢ͧԪҪԷҫ֡ǡѺèṡѵҧ š͡繾ǡ Ǵ ѡԷʵҹáèṡժԵ͡Ǵ繹ѡԷʵҢҾת ͷ¡ѹ㹷ءѹ ѡġʵ ᤹ (De Candolle) شʧͧҹ͡¡תҧ Ǻ͡Ǵ ͤдǡ㹡֡Ф鹤  ѧѡԷʵ֡ǡѺѵ ͹ѡѵʵ 鷴ͧṡԴѵҧ ٺҧ  Ŵը֧ռèṡѵẺ᤹ͧաѹҧ
         ѵػʧ㹡֡͹ءԸҹѵ»Ѩغѹ ¢ͺࢵҧ͡աըش С С÷˹觷Ըըṡѵҧ ͡ǴѡɳԸա÷騴ѵе С÷ͧ ͷоѲԸѹѺèѴ͹ءԸҹѵ  ੾оǡ繵ҧҧԧ лСشͨԸա÷èѴ͹ءԸҹѵդж١ͧҧó 蹤ѵǡ դԴѹʹèШѴ¡ѹ 㹷ҧçѹ ǡ պþҧѹж١Ѵ㹵˹觷ҧѹ͡仴  ԴС ѧբѧҡաûСȷɮѲҡâͧ Թ (Charles Robert Darwin .. - ѡԷʵѧ)繵  èѴ͹ءԸҹѵ¡͹ ִѡҧҤͧӤѭ  駾ԨóҶ֧ѵԤҢͧ͹Сͺ ҧá Ѩ Ш¢ͧѵпʫ (fossil) 赡ҧԹͧ֡Ҷ֧Ǣͧҧѵ쪹Դҧ ѧժԵؤѨغѹ ѧ鹡èѴ͹ءԸҹѵؤѨغѹ ͡ҡѡҹѧ ѧաùӤҧԪԷ Է ѹʵ ѡ㹡ա