ҡ

ҡ

ҡ
ҡ (air) š ¡ ҡ ǹҡȷš੾ǹ¡ ҡ ҡ觷ʶҹз ǹСͺҧ ѵǹҧѹ ҡȨлСͺ觵ҧ ѧ

ٻʴǹСͺͧҡ

1. ਹ (nitrogen) ǹСͺҡȻҳ 78 »ҵ ਹ͡ਹҡ ѹһ繻ԡҷҧŴǴŧ ਹҡȺҧǹж١Ấ·㹴Թ ҡתҧԴ ֧ͻªͧת ;תѵŧµਹѺҡա
2. ͡ਹ (oxygen) ǹСͺҡȻҳ 21 »ҵ ͡ਹǹСͺӤѭ㹡ѹһ תѵͧ͡ਹ㹡 (кǹ᷺ԫͧ) ͡ਹԴҨҡкǹѧʧͧת
3. ͹͡䫴 (carbondioxide) ǹСͺҡȻҳ 0.04 »ҵ ת͹͡䫴㹡кǹѧʧ ͧ͡ժԵҤ͹͡䫴͡¹͡
4. (inert gas) ʷդͧǵͻԡҷҧ
1) ͹ (Ar) ҡҡش㹡ͧ´¡ѹ ҳ 0.09 »ҵ 㹡÷ʹ俿ͧʧ о ҹ͹Ѻਹŧʹ俿 ͧ͢͹зʹ俿 Դͧʧ
2) (He) ʷդ˹蹵 㹡úԹͧؤ͹ 觻Ѩغѹ
3) ͹ (Ne) ʷʧ§͡俿͹ҹ ҷӻɳҡҧ׹
4) Ի͹ (Kr) Ыչ͹ (Xe) ʷչ·ش㹡ͧҡ ª㹡÷ɳ
5) ͹ ǹͧӷ͹ͧҡ͹ͧ觤͹ҧ ҡǹСͺͧҡ ҡդѷ 60 س 68 ͧҿùε Ҩ֡ʺ·ش
6) ͧ ҡսͧӹǹҡѡººѺǹСͺͧҡ ͧ繵Ǫз͹ʧʧҡǧҷԵҧҡ
7)ժԵҴҡȨժԵҴǹСͺ Ấ 繵

ͤ÷Һ 
            -ҡ繢ͧСͺᵡҧѹªԴ ǹСͺͧҡ¹ŧ ¡͡ҡѹԸշҧҾ ͡ਹਹդسѵǡѺ͡ਹਹط

             # ҡš٧ 800 - 1,000 ¹ѺҡдѺӷŨѴ繺ҡȷš Ѵҡ٧繺dz͹Ҥҧ ҡç֧ٴͧš ¡ǹͺdz ǡ

ٻʴдѺ鹺ҡǡ

ѵԢͧҡ
             ҡѵ੾еǷӤѭ
            1. յǵ ͧ÷
            2. 繢ͧŶʹ ҡȨŨҡdzդѹҡ٧ѧdzѹҡȵ ֧Դ
            3. 繢ͧ¡ѹ٧ ͷ繨Ѵ ҡȨ¹繢ͧ ¡ ҡ ѡɳ繢ͧ
            4. ҡդ˹ դѹ դ дѺس

˹蹢ͧҡ 
            ˹蹢ͧҡ (density) ѵǹҧšѺҵâͧҡ

            ҡ÷ӡ÷ͧ ˹蹢ͧҡȨŴŧͤ٧ҡ鹷ء ٧ 2 ҡдѺӷ

ҧʴ˹蹢ͧҡдѺ٧ҡдѺӷдѺҧ

٧ҡдѺӷ (km)

˹蹢ͧҡ (kg/ )

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

1.225
1.007
0.819
0.660
0.526
0.414
0.312
0.228
0.166
0.122
0.089

èѴ觪鹺ҡ
èṡͨѴ鹢ͧҡ ·仨ШѴṡѡɳзѡɳ蹪Ѵ ҧ Ѵṡس ѴṡѵԢͧʷ ѴṡѵԷҧصعԷ

èѴṡ鹺ҡдѺسࡳ
            èѴṡ鹺ҡдѺسԨ觪鹺ҡ 4
1. (troposhere) 繪鹺ҡȷѡɳдѧ
                 1) š件֧ 10
                 2) سԨ¹仵дѺ٧ дѺسԨŴŧдѺ٧ ·仨Ŵŧҳ 6.5 ͧʵͤ٧˹觡 ѡɳ੾ dz˹Ҥ鹷ջĴ͹ dz˹ҤطĴ˹ سԨŴŧ٧ҧǴ
                 3) ǹͧǹ᤺ ԴüѹѺͧس سԨŴŧдѺ٧ üѹѺͧسԨԴ˹Ҥ鹷ջĴ˹˹طĴ͹ ͧҡ繵ǢͧǴԹ¡ѧ ͨҡ÷ҡȷس٧ʡѺǴԹ繡
                 4) ջҡóҧ Դ㹺ҡȪ鹹 Ҥйͧ ź ͧ Ҽ 繵
2. ʵ (stratosphere) 繪鹺ҡȷ٧ѴҡҡȪա 50 ѡɳ੾зѴਹ
                 1) سԤǹԴѺ 20 Ѵҡ٧ 20 ùա 10-15 ͷ٧ҡ 30-35 سԨ٧ еͨҡسԨҧǴǴѵ 0.5 ͧʵͤ٧ 1
                 2) ʵ繪鹺ҡȷդдѺ ҡ ջҳͧͧ
                 3) 繪鹺¡ȷջҳ⫹ () ҡ
3. (mesophere) 繪鹺ҡȷѴҡʵաФ٧ҳ 80 ѡɳ੾С سԢͧ鹺ҡȨŴŧдѺͧ٧
4. (thermosphere) 繪鹺ҡȷѴҡФ٧ 400-500 ѡɳ੾
                 1) Ф٧ 100 á дѺسԢͧ鹺ҡȹҧǴ жѴҡ 100 áաдѺ سԢͧ鹺ҡȨŴŧ٧ 
                 2) дѺسԢͧҡȪ鹹͹ҡ ¨дѺس٧֧ 227-1,727 ͧ
                 3) ҳͧ͹Ҥҧ դ˹蹹ҡ
                 4) ҡȪ鹹繺dzҡ¹ҧǧǷդҺҧҡ ¡͡ (exosphere)


ٻʴ觪鹺ҡسࡳ

èѴṡ鹺ҡǹСͺͧҡȷʵҧ ࡳ

            èѴṡ鹺ҡǹСͺͧҡȷʵҧ ࡳ Ѵ觪鹺ҡ 4 ѧ
1. (troposhere) 繪鹺ҡȷѡɳ੾дѧ
            1) 繪鹺ҡȷǹԴšҡȷФ٧ 10 »ҳ
            2) ǹСͺͧҡȷӤѭҡ ͹ ·仨ǹСͺͧҡȵ
2. (ozonosphere) 繪鹺ҡȷѡɳ੾дѧ
            1) 繪鹢ͧҡȷѴҡҡȪա ֧лҳ 50-55 èҡš
            2) ¡Ȫ鹹ջҳͧ⫹ () ҡش Ҩ¡ҡȪ鹹 ⫹
3. (ionosphere) 繪鹺ҡȷѡɳ੾дѧ
            1) 繪鹺ҡȷѴҡ件֧Ф٧ҳ 600 èҡš
            2) ջҳ硵͹繨ӹǹҡ
            3) Шҡš件֧ Ҥ蹤ͧԷöѭҳǷء˹ء觺šзҧҳ 1,000
4. ͡ (exosphere) 繪鹺ҡȷѡɳ੾дѧ
            1) 繪鹺ҡȷ٧شѴҡ鹺ҡ件֧Ф٧Ҽšҳ 660
            2) 㹪鹺ҡȹ˹蹢ͧͧСͺͧҡȨչŧ

ٻʴèѴ觪鹺ҡǹСͺͧҡࡳ

èṡ鹺ҡǢͧѺ صعԷ
èѴṡ鹢ͧҡǢͧѺͧͧصعԷ Ѵṡ֧ 5
1. 鹷ԷԾŢͧ״ ҡȪ鹹֧дѺ٧ 2 èҡ鹼Ǣͧš 繺dzա¹Ңͧҡ ͹ҡšзҡ㹺ҡȪ鹹çҧ¹ ¡ö·ʹ͹Ѻҡ㹺dz
2. ǹ鹡ҧЪ鹺 ҡȪ鹹աŴŧͧسԢФ٧ ԷԾŢͧ״ռŷ¹ͧҡȹŧ
3. ⾾ (tropopause) ҡȪ鹹ҧҡȪʵ ҡȪ鹹繪鹷͹Ъ鹷͹
4. ʵ (startosphere) ҡȪ鹹դ ͧ§硹 ⫹˹
5. ҡȪ٧ 繺ҡȪ鹷Ѵҡʵ仨ͺ͡شͧ鹺ҡšسԢͧҡ

            س (temperature) ͧҡ дѺҳ͹ҡЪǧʶҹ ҡ֡СõǨѴسԢͧҡµǨҡдѺš㹪鹺ҡȷдѺ٧ 10 ǨѴ سԢͧҡȨաŴŧдѺ٧ҡš 駹͸Ժ ҡҧѹšѺʧᴴʧҡǧҷԵ ¡ôٴ׹ ҡ鹤͹ж١͡ ҡȨѺ͹੾кdzš ֧سԢͧҡȪ鹷š٧ҺҡȪ鹷٧

ٻʴѡɳСԴسԢͧҡ

سԢͧҡ㹪鹺ҡȵҧ дѺ٧ͧšդᵡҧѹѧҧ

ҧʴسԢͧҡȷдѺ٧ҧ ѹ

дѺ٧ҡ 
дѺӷ (km)

سԢͧҡ ( C)


0.089 
7.504 
3.138 
4.396 
5.848 
7.557 
7.647

27.0
25.3
18.2
8.0
2.2
-6.1
-17.6
-32.3

ҡŵҧʴҺ
1. ǧ˹蹢ͧҡȨҡš任ҳ 10 سԢͧҡȨŴŧͤ٧
2. Ţʴѵҡ¹ŧдѺس 5.5 ͧ зҧ 1 дѺسԨŴŧ 5.5 ͧ ͤ٧ 1
3. ҹҢŹ¹ҿ оҡҿѡɳ鹡ҿ ŧ ʴ繶֧ ҢͧسԨФ ŴŧдѺͧҡ٧

ҿʴسԢͧҡȷдѺ٧ҧѹ

ҡҿѴਹ سԨŴŧͤ٧ҡ 觹ҷҺ ҵͧԹҧ٧ҡǢͧšдѺ٧Թ 10 ҵͧѺҾ¹ŧͧسԩйҨԴµҹ˹
Ҩѹ¶֧ªԵ㹷ش

ѹҡ ѹҡ (air pressure) ¶֧ çѹͧҡ 觡ͧͧѵԢͧҡȷͧ÷ ҡȨ͹šŢͧҡȨ͹ʹ ͧҡʶҹТͧ ҡȨ͹价ءȷءҧԴç¡ çѹҡ çѹҡȨТѺԷԾŢͧҴ鹷 س

Ѵѹͧҡ
Ѵѹͧҡ չѡԷʵӡ֡Ҥ鹤騹öҧͧѴѹͧҡ
ѡԷʵ֡ͧѹͧҡȷѡ 2 ҹ¡ѹ (Galileo) (Torricelli) ֡Ҿ ҡöѹͧ ͻͷʹǷحҡ ֧ӤѧһءҧͧѴѹҡȷժ¡ (barometer) ͷèʹͧҡդسѵԷաҢͧ

ͤ÷Һ
1. ѹ 1 ҡ ѹͧҡȷͷ͹٧ 76 ૹ 760
2. 1 ҡ դҡѺ 1,013.25 Ժ
3. 1,000 Ժ դҡѺ 1
4. 1 ҡ դҡѺ 1.013105 ǵѹ͵ҧ
5. 㹷ҧصعԷҨ˹¢ͧ 繹 Ժ ͺ
6. 1 դҡѺ 25.4
7. 1 Ժ դҡѺ 0.02953 Ǣͧͷ
8. 1 Ժ դҡѺ 0.750062 âͧͷ

ͧѴѹҡ
ͧͷѴѹͧҡ¡ (barometer) ͧͷҺ dz˹ dzդͧҡҡ 繻ª͡÷ӧҹͧصعԷ Դͧմѧ仹
1. Ẻͷ (barometer) СͺʹǷԴ´ҹ˹ зحҡ 令ŧҧèػͷ ҡ¹͡СѹͷʹдѺ˹觢ͧʹ дѺͧͷ¹ŧ仵ѹͧҡ ¤ѹ 1 ҡȨдѹͷ٧ 76 ૹ 760

ٻʴẺͷ

2. ͹´ (aneriod barometer) Դͷͧ͢Ẻ 繺з繵Ѻǹҡ͡͹ (¨зحҡ) çҡҡҡѺ зѺա͹ ԴѺǵѺ͡ѹͧҡ·ź͡дѺѹͧҡ ͹´дɰմ (Vidi) 㹻 .. 2388 բҴ硾дǡ

ٻʴ͹´

3. ͡ҿ (barograph) ͧͷ㹡ѴѹҡȷѡǡѺ͹´ кѹ֡ѹҡẺͧŧдɵʹѡɳ鹡ҿ

ٻʴ͡ҿ

4. ŵ (altimeter) ͹´ һءѹͧҡѴдѺ٧ ŵͧͷ㹡úԹ ͧͷѡⴴ͡áⴴ

ٻʴŵ鹢ͧҡ

鹢ͧҡ (humidity) ¶֧ ҳͧ͹ӷ㹪鹺ҡ 㹡óշդҡ٧¶֧ҡջҳ͹ҡ жҡդ鹵¶֧ҡջҳ͹ӹ

ͤ÷Һ

ҡ ¶֧ ҡȷջҳ͹٧ҡ ֧ҡȷöѺ͹Өҡҧ ա 㹡óշ͹ԹдѺҡ ͹ӨШѴõͧ¡á´ӵŧ繽

ó
ó ͤ (absolute humidity) 繤鹷Ţͧ͹ӷԧҡ˹˹»ҵ ˹ ˹㹡Ѵ繡١ȡ óա¡ ˹蹢ͧ͹ ͻҳ͹ҡ óդҡѺѵǹҧŢͧ͹ӷըԧҡ Ѻҵâͧҡ ѧ



ҧ 1 ͧ˹ջҳ 1,200 ١ȡ ͹ӡШ 40,000 óͧդ
Ըշ ó 
 ͺ


ҧ 2 ͧ¹˹բҴҧ 10 20 ͹ 80,000 óͧդ
Ըշ ó 
 ͺ
ҧ 3 㹻˹ջҵâͧҡ 1,700,000 ١ȡ ѧ͹ӡШ 5,000,000 ó㹻觹դ
Ըշ ó 
 ͺ

ѷ 
ѷ (relative humidity) ԸաѴ¡ºº繵 ҧóŢͧ͹ӷԧҡ ѺŢͧ͹ӷҡȨӹǹ ҧ سлҵǡѹ




ҧ 4 س 60 ͧ ҡǷҳ͹ 24 ١ȡ ͹ӨԧҡȢй 8 ١ȡ ҤҤѷ
Ըշ ѷ 
ͺ

ҧ 5 Ҥóͧҡդ 80 ١ȡ ҡ觹öѺ͹ 140 ١ȡ ѷͧҡȹդ
Ըշ ѷ 
ͺ


鹨 (specific humidity) ѵǹҧŢͧ͹˹繡Ţͧҡȷ 1 š


Ѵ㹺ҡ
Ѵ㹺ҡ ҨѴ繤ѷͧͷժ¡ (hygrometer) ªԴ
1. Ẻ¡ лСͺ 2 ѹ ѹ˹ѴسԵ աѹ˹ѴسѡɳзҼ ¡ʹա¢ͧӨҡ سԵӡ ҡ鹹سҤҤѷ ҡҤҧͧдѺسԢͧͧ¡ҹҨҡҧٻ 


ٻʴС¡

ҧҤҤѷ

ҤҤѹҡẺ¡С سԨҡҹ 37 C سԢͧ¡ҹ 278 C ҤҤѷ

Ըշ

1. ҼŵҧͧسԢͧͧҡѺ 37 C-27 C = 10 C
2. ٤ҼŵҧºѺҧ
3. ҹҢͧ駷 35-39 C
4. ҹҤҧ
5. ҡ 3 Т 4 մ駩ҡҡѹ شѴͤҤѷҡѺ 46 C

2. (psychrometer)  ẺС¡Դ躹ἧ繤 ἧ Դ¢ͧӷ¡õǨͺ§çҡ
3. Ẻ鹼 (hair hygrometer) ӨҡѵԢͧ鹼Ѻ դҡ鹼״͡ դ鹹鹼˴
4. áҿ (hygrograph) Ẻ鹼աúѹ֡Ҥ鹵ͧѹ¡ҿŧд