кع¹Եͧ

            кع¹ԵͧСͺǹҧ
ʹ (plasma)
ʹСͺ
            1. 觨з˹ҷѡдѺҳͧʹѹԵ餧 ҵصҧ 繵ǡҧ㹡 § դ¡ʹ
            2. ҵ ˹ҷѡдѺͧ дѺͧ pH ѡдѺҧͧ Ѻʹ
            3. õչ (plasma protein) ˹ҷ ѡдѺͧçѹԡдѺ pH ѧվǡ˹ҷ੾
            - 俺ਹ (fibrinogen) ˹ҷǡѺ秵Ǣͧʹ
            - ÷Թ (prothrombin) ˹ҷǡѺ秵Ǣͧʹ
            - źչ (albumin) ˹ҷ¤Ǻҳͧǹҧ ͧҧ
            - źչ (globulin) ˹ҷǺдѺ pH ҳ §ҵصҧ ͹Ժʹ (antibody)

(heart)
            кع¹Եա¹ŧ Ҩҡʹ㹢зҧ㹪ǧ繵͹ ˹ҷ㹡úպʹѧǹҧ ͧҧ ҧʹ 2 ҧ͹价ҧʹҹ ٻ´͡ǵ ҴҡѺͧ͢Ңͧ ͡ҧ 8 ૹ 2 ૹ 㨨㹶ا (pericardium) չ§ (pericardial fluid) §
ѧͧ 3 鹹͡ (epicardium) 鹡ҧ (myocardium) Ъ (endocardium) ͪ鹡ҧ˹ҡ աͷ繡;¡ (cardiac muscle)
1. 㨢ͧժԵ
            - 㨷ѡɳʹʹ պ繨ѧеʹ 㨢ͧǡ͹Թ ǡԧ ¡ѧ pulsating vessel
            - tubular heart 㨹¡Ѻ pulsating vessel 㨢ͧǡ ;ǡ arthropod
            - 㨷ٻҧ繡¡ ampullar heart 㨢ͧǡŧ ֡ ѵԹԹ ѵ¤ҹ
            㨷աͧ ͧѺʹͧʹ ¡ chambered heart դѺѺ͹ҡ ҧͧͧ㨨㨻ԴԴʹ͹ҹ仵ȷҧ Ẻ 4 Դ 㨪Դͧͧ 㨢ͧǡ 㨪Դͧ 㨢ͧǡժԵջʹ ѵ¤ҹ ѵ觹Ӥ觺 (¡鹾ǡ繾ǡ 4 ͧ 4 ͧó) 㨪Դͧ 㨢ͧǡ ѵ§١¹ӹ
2. 鹢ͧ (heart beat) 鹢ͧ ÷ӧҹٺմʹ价Ƿء ء ءТͧҧ ٺմѡѹʹѧзӡš¹ͧТͧբͧ ʹ
鹢ͧ㨨繨ѧз͵ʹ ͧҨҡ˴ ¡÷ӧҹ 鹢ͧ (heart beat or contraction of heart) 㨨鹵ѧ㹤ͧô仨з鹪Ե
鹢ͧ㨻Сͺ¢鹵͹ 2 鹵͹ 鹵͹úպ ¡ systole Т鹵͹äµ;ͧ ¡ diastole
3. ѵҡ鹢ͧ (heart rate) ѵҡ 鹢ͧռҨҡ觵ҧ
            - ¹ŧ᷺ԫҧ
            - ˭ԧǡȪ
            - Һͧҧ ׹ 繵
            - 纻¨ҡäСúҴ
            - Ҵͧҧ ҧբҴѵҡ鹢ͧ㨨 ҧբҴ˭ѵҡ鹢ͧ㨨Ъ
µҧ ѵҧԴѹѵҡ鹢ͧҡѹ
- á㹤 140 /ҷ
- 100 /ҷ
- 80 /ҷ
- ˭ 75 /ҷ
- ª 75-80 /ҷ
- ˹ 700 /ҷ
- е 150 /ҷ
- عѢ 100-120 /ҷ
- 56-60 /ҷ
- ҧ 25-28 /ҷ

ʹ (blood vessel)
            ҧ¢ͧժԵкع¹Ե 2 к кʹᴧ (arterial system) кʹ (venous system)
            1. ʹᴧ (artery) ʹʹ͡ҡ ͹ѧ еҧ ҧ
            2. ʹ (vein) ʹʹ ʹҨҡǹҧ ͧҧ
1. çҧͧʹ çҧͧʹʹᴧ (vein and artery) Сͺ 3
            1.1 ͪ鹹͡ (tunica externa) Сͺ (connective tissue) §ǡѹҧ շ͹ͧ鹻ҷ ʹŧ˭ͧâͧҧ
            1.2 ͪ鹡ҧ (tunica media) ͪ鹷դ˹ҡش muscle layer Сͺ¡º Ǿѹ elastic tissue collagen fiber դ˹ç ʹᴧͪ鹡ҧ˹ҡʹ
            1.3 ͪ (tunica interna) ͪشСͺ endothelium Ǿѹǡ elastic tissue ç
çҧͧʹʹᴧբҴҡѹդᵡҧѹ
            - ʹռѧҧʹᴧ
            - ʹժͧҧҡʹᴧ
            - բͧʹӨդӡʹᴧ

            ʹӨ鹷ʹǡ˭訹֧㨨բҴ˭ش
ʹᴧ鹷ʹҴ˭شǤ ŴҴŧʹ

2. Ţͧʹ (bloodflow) ᾷѧػ "ʹж١ѹ͡ҡ价ҧ ǡšѺա" Ţͧʹ㹷ҧǡѹ ա͹ȷҧѹ çѹʹ仵ʹҨҡ º͹ͧٺ Шеͧաѧçͷдѹʹ仵ʹԴ͡ѹ ʹżҹ㨻ҳҷ 5 Ե
Ţͧʹ 2 ǧ
            - pulmonary circulation ǧ÷ʹ¨ҡͧҧԹҧѧʹҹлʹҹ 仿͡ Ѻ͡ਹФ¤͹͡䫴 ԹҧҡʹѺҷͧҹ ¹繼ѧ ѧ
right ventricle --> lung (right and left) --> left auricle
            - systemic circulation ǧâͧʹըҡͧҹҧ§ еҧ ҧ СʹԹҧѺ㨷ҧͧҹ
3. ѴѹԵ ѴѹԵͧͷ¡ sphygmomanometer ҵѴѹʹ Ҥѹʹ ˹ âͧͷ
ѹʹԢͧդһҳ 120/80 âͧͷ