ѹҧҧѡ俿 俿 Фҹҹ俿

            俿 ҧѡ俿 Фҹҹ俿ǹ觷դѹͧѹ Ǥ 俿ҨԴżҹҡ͹¡Ѻѡɳеǹ俿դسѵҧ

ҧѡ俿

            ҧѡ俿 ᵡҧͧѧҹ俿ҧشͧش 觷Դ俿Ң ¡俿ҨŨҡشдѺѧҹ俿٧ (ѡ俿٧) ѧشдѺѧҹ俿ҵӡ (ѡ俿ҵ) Шشѡ俿ҷͧشҡѹ

ͤ

            ҧѡ俿ҧشͧشºѺŢͧ 觨Ũҡ٧ѧ ШشдѺҡѹ
            ͧͷѴҧѡ俿ǧ俿 ¡ ŵ (voltmeter) ˹¡Ѵ ŵ (volt) ᷹ҧѡ V ѭѡɳͧŵ

ٻʴѡɳŵ

            ŵըеͧդҹҹ٧俿żҹ·ش

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            ŵ (volt) 繪ͧ͢ ʫѹ ŵ (Alessandro Volta) дɰԴẵ繤á

            ҵͧѴҧѡҧش 2 ش ǧ俿 ö¡ùŵͤҧ 2 ش ¡õѡɳй õẺҹ ѧٻ

ٻʴõŵǧ俿

            ÷俿 ͧҨҡҧѡ俿ҷԴ鹷Ǣͧ觡Դ俿 ҧѡ俿Ңͧ觡Դ俿ЪԴҡѹ ҹ俩դҧѡҳ 1.5 ŵ ẵö¹դҧѡ俿һҳ 12 ŵ ǹ俿㹺ҹդҧѡ俿һҳ 220 ŵ 駹Ҥҧѡ俿դҡ дѺѧҹ俿ҡҡ鹴 觨ռԴѹ

俿

            俿Դ鹨ҡ͹ͧ硵͹ҡdz˹աdz˹ 俿ԴԸ Դҡᵡҧͧѧҹͧdz Դҡԡ Դҡ˹ǹӢͧѵ 繵
            ͧͷѴ俿ǧ俿 ¡ (ammeter) ˹¡Ѵ (ampere) ᷹俿 I ѭѡɳͧ

ٻʴѡɳТͧ

            յͧդҹҹ 俿ǧżҹҡش
Ѵҳ俿ѡɳǡѺҵѴҳӷżҹͻл ͧáǧ÷俿żҹ §ӴѺǧ俿繡õẺ͹ء 俿ҷҹҡ繤ǡѺ俿ҷżҹǧù ѧٻ

ٻʴõǧ俿

            俿͡ 2 Դ ѧ
            1. 俿ҡʵç (Direct Current : DC) 繡俿ҷ㹷ȷҧǡѹ »ԡ俿ҨŨҡشѡ俿٧ѧشѡ俿ҵӡ ͨҡǺǡҹǧѧźҧǵʹ 俿Ҩҡ俿 (ҹ俩) ͨҡẵ
            2. 俿ҡѺ (Alternating Current : AC) 繡俿ҷšѺ ¡俿ҨŨҡǺǡѧź ŨҡźѧǺǡѺѹ 俿ҷҤúҹ͹ 俿ҷԴҡ䴹

ҹҹ俿

            ҹҹ 繻ҳҧ˹觷ҹ͹ͧ觵ҧ ŢͧӼҹͷբҴҧѹ о դҹҹҡ Ө֧żҹ¡ҷ˭㹪ǧҡѹ ֧ դҹҹҡ Ө֧żҹ ǹ˭դҹҹ¹Ө֧żҹҡ
            ҹ俿 (resistance) ѵԢͧǹ俿 (conductor) żҹҡ͹ ѵ੾еǢͧǹӹ դᵡҧѹ誹Դͧǹ Ǥ͵ǹ俿ҷ俿żҹҡդҹҹ ǹǹ俿ҷ俿żҹ¨դҹҹҡ ҹҹ俿˹ (ohm) ѭѡɳ V ͷ᷹ҹҹ俿 R

            Ѩ·ռŵͤҹҹͧǹ俿 մѧ
            1) Դͧǹ ǹӵҧԴѹդҹҹҡѹ
            2) Ǣͧǹ ҡդҹҹҡ Фǹ¨դҹҹ (ҹҹüѹµçѺ)
                 - ǴǹӪԴǡѹ Ҵ˭ҡѹ 鹷ǡҨդҹҹҡ Ш俿Ҽҹ¡鹷
            3) 鹷˹ҵѴͧǹ 鹷˹ҵѴҡ (Ҵ˭) դҹҹ о鹷˹ҵѴ (Ҵ) դҹҹҡ (ҹҹüѹѺ鹷˹ҵѴ)
                 - ǴǹӪԴǡѹ ҡѹ 鹷բҴ硡 վ鹷˹ҵѴ¡Ҩդҹҹҡ Ш俿Ҽҹ¡鹷բҴ˭
            4) سԢͧǹ س٧դҹҹҡ سԵӨդҹҹ
                 - ǹ俿 (insulator) ÷俿żҹդҹҹ俿٧ ǹ˭繾ǡ ҧ ʵԡ ͧ 繵
                 - ǹ俿Ǵ (superconductor) ǹ俿ҷդҹҹ俿 ¹ӵǹ俿 պء ͷ ŴسԨ֧дѺ˹ ͻҳ -25 ͧ ǹ俿ҡҹҹŧ
                 - 俿Ѵǧ (short circuit) ԴҡǴǹСѹ ֧ա俿һҳҡҹdzСѹԴ͹٧ ǧ١ѴҨءԴѤ

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            ˵ط蹡俿ç٧թǹ ١俴ٴ
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