ѧҹ

            ѧҹ ö㹡÷ӧҹ ѧҹ㹡÷ӡԨͷӧҹҧ Թ ԭԺ л١ 繵 ѧҹʧҧѺҹ͹ͷ¢ͧ ѧҹѧҹ˹еҧ ö¹ ö Ǵ ͧԹ 繵 ѧҹҹ Ҥӹѡҹҧ ͧʺ ԴٻҾ÷ȹҡ ͡ҡѧѧͧѡçҹصˡ ѧ鹶һȨҡѧҹ㴷ӧҹ ѵоתе ͧѡ觵ҧ öӧҹ Ҿ繨ԧҡšͧһȨҡѧҹժԵ зء Եͧþѧҹ

öѡҹ¹͹ѧҹԧ

            ѡԷʵѴٻẺͧѧҹǴ ͤǡѺѧҹٻẺᵡҧѹ ѧҹҧ㹡÷ӧҹҡѧҹ÷Ѻзҹ ѧҹʧͧ觵ҧ ͺ ѧҹ§Թ㹡 ѵ͹ѧҹ ѧҹ俿ҡѺͧ俿 繵

ѧҹ

            ѧҹ (mechanical energy) 繾ѧҹǢͧѺ͹ͧѵ ͡ 2 ѧҹѡоѧҹŹ ¾ѧҹѡ繾ѧҹѵ ǹѧҹŹ繾ѧҹͧѵآзѵ͹ ѧҹѡ 2 Դ ѧҹѡ״ 繾ѧҹѵطա״ ѧҹʻԧ ᶺҧ˹ѧʵԡ 繵 ѧҹѡաԴ˹繾ѧҹѵط㹵˹٧ҡ š ¡ ѧҹѡǧ дѺ鹹ҨСǶ֧੾оѧҹѡǧ

ѧҹѡǧ

            ѧҹѡǧ (gravitational potential energy) ¶֧ ѧҹѵط٧ҡš ѵعǴ
            Ѩ·ռŵ;ѧҹѡǧ
            1. Ţͧѵ ѵطҡ çǧͧšзӵѵع鹨ҡ Ңͧѧҹѡǧҡ仴
            2. ˹觷ͧѵ Ф٧ͧѵطҧҡš ѵطҧҡšҡҾѧҹѡǧҡ ѧѵط٧֧դҾѧҹѡǧҡѵط дѺӡ ѵ ˹٧شդҾѧҹѡǧҡش ѵص֧šդҾѧҹѡǧդҾѧҹ ѡǧٹ ҡ˹
᷹ѧҹѡǧ ö¹ѹҧѧҹѡǧͧѵءѺФ٧ͧѵѧ

m = Ţͧѵ (š)
g = ͧҡçǧͧš ( = 9.8 / Թҷ)
h = ٧ͧѵبҡ ()
= ѧҹѡǧ ()

            ҧ 1 ѡҡⴴ 50 š ⴴӷ˹觵ҧ ѹ ӹdzҾѧҹѡͧѡ
            1) ׹鹢ͺй
            2) ׹дѺ٧ 4 èҡͺй
            3) ׹дѺ٧ 6 èҡͺй
Ըշ 1) ѡ׹鹢ͺй
ҡٵ = mgh

ͺ


2) ѡ׹дѺ٧ 4 èҡͺй

ͺ


3) ѡ׹дѺ٧ 6 èҡͺй

ͺ

            ҧ 2 һҳѧҹѡͧ١оǷ躹٧ 6
            1) ١о 0.5 š
            2) ١о 1.0 š
Ըշ 1) ١о 0.5 š

ͺ


2) ١о 1.0 š

ͺ

ҧªͧѧҹѡǧ áѡ纹ҧ纹˹͹ͼԵ俿 ҡѡ纹٧ҡվѧҹѡҡ ˹ѡͧ鹨蹨зѧҹѡ 繵

ѧҹŹ

            ѧҹŹ (kinetic energy) 繾ѧҹͧѵآзѵ͹
            Ѩ·ռŵ;ѧҹŹ
            1. Ţͧѵ ѵطդҢͧҡվѧҹŹҡ
            2. 㹡͹ͧѵ ѵط͹¤٧վѧҹŹҡ
            ҡ˹ ᷹ѧҹŹ ö¹ѹҧѧҹŹͧѵءѺФǢͧѵѧ

m = Ţͧѵ (š)
v = Ǣͧѵ (/Թҷ)
= ѧҹŹͧѵ ()

            ҧ 3 ö¹ѹ˹ 1,500 š ͹¤ 72 õͪ ҾѧҹŹͧö¹
Ըշ ҡٵ

ͺ

            ҧ 4 ѡҡⴴ 50 š ⴴŧǹӴ¤ 10 õԹҷ ҾѧҹŹҡ͹ͧѡ
Ըշ

ͺ

            㹪ԵШѹդ¡ѺŷԴҡѧҹŹ ѧҹŹҡõͧ١硷ԴѺ鹨蹨Ъ㹡 ͡ 繰ҹҡͧáҧҤõҧ ѧҹŹͧӷŵҡ٧зѧѹع㹡 Ե俿ªҧҧҧ 蹢ͧҡ ͸ԺҼ蹨ҡ٧ҨСзѺ鹴¤ҡҼ 蹨ҡ 駾ѧҹѡоѧҹŹ繾ѧҹǢͧѺ͹ ͧѵ ͧѧҹѡоѧҹŹͧѵ¡ ѧҹ (mechanical energy) ¹ٻѺ仡ѺҧѧҹѡǧоѧҹŹ ԴŢͧѧҹѧ
            ѵ㹵˹٧ش ѵبش ѧҹѡǧդ٧ش ǹѧҹŹդҵشҡѺٹ ѵ͹ ѧҹѡǧŴŧ ͧҡѧҹѡǧ¹繾ѧҹŹ Тѵ͹ŧҨ֧ ѧҹŹѺդ٧ش ǹѧҹѡǧդҵشҡѺٹ ͧҡѧҹѡǧ¹繾ѧҹŹͧ

ٻʴ¹ŧѧҹ

            ѵ٧ ѧҹѡǧҡ ͹赡ŧҾѧҹѡŴŧ ШվѧҹŹҡ

            ѧҹ͡ҡٻẺѧҹѡ ѧҹŹ ;ѧҹ㹪ԵШѹѧѧҹٻẺҧ ѧ
            1. ѧҹ 繾ѧҹὧçҧͧ ѧҹշ㹹ѹԧ ѧҹշ ѧҹշẵͶҹ俩 ҹл¾ѧҹ͡ӻª㹴ҹҧ ѧҹչҨ¡աҧ˹ "ѧҹ"
            2. ѧҹ俿 繾ѧҹԴҡ͹ͧ硵͹ͻШ俿㹪ǧ ˹ ¼ҹͧԴ俿ҷդҧѡ俿 䴹 繵
            3. ѧҹ 繾ѧҹٻͧ ʧ § Է ªҧ ҡ 㹡þҡóҡ ¨ѧҹٻͧ㹡Ѻ觢
            4. ѧҹ 繾ѧҹ١͡ٻͧáѹѧիҵ áѹѧԴ ͧԡó
            çҹ俿ҹѧҹҡһԡóٻͧѧҹ͹㹡üԵ俿

˵

            ͹ѡѧҹ "ѧҹöҧͷ٭ ѧҹöԴö͹ҧѧҹ¡ѹ Դ¹ٻѧҹͧ" ѡôѧ¹ٻѧҹԴªеç ͧ

ѧҹ͹

            س˹Ѵ
㹪ԵШѹҨФ¡Ѻѧҹ͹ (thermal energy) ѧҹ͹繾ѧҹö෨ҡ˹ѧա˹ ѹͧҨҡ¹ŧس ѵشٴ׹ѧҹ͹зѵس٧ ֧Դö෾ѧҹ͹Ѻѵ蹷سԵӡ 觵鹡Դͧѧҹ͹ҨҡǧԵ ͧԧ âѴ١ѹͧѵ Шҡѧҹ俿
ѵѺѧҹ͹س٧ س繻ҳ͡Һ֧дѺ͹ͧѵ
            ͧͷѴسªԴ ѹҡ ͧͷѡâµǢͧͧѺ͹ ѡɳʹ ·ͧҧԴ ʹҧ˹繡 觺èآͧ µѺ͹ ˴Ѻ ͧǷèͷԹ ҧաšպè᷹ͷ

ٻʴѴ

            ˹·ѴسԷѹҧ ͧ (8 C) ͧҿùε (8 F) Թ (K) ¡˹ سԷ繨ش͡秢ͧӺط 0 ͧ 32 ͧҿùε 273 Թ سԷ繨شʹͧӺط 100 ͧ 212 ͧҿùε 373 Թ

ٻʴҷҹҡẺҧ

ҧдѺس¢ͧ觵ҧ

            ͧҡ˹Ѵ˹ ѧ鹶ҵͧ¹˹·Ѵ˹Ѵ öҡʴѹͧ˹ ѧ

            ͡ҡѴسԢͧҧ ҧҨͧѴѡɳᶺ蹾ʵԡ 觨лҡᶺʴسԢͧҧ蹡ѹ
            ѧҹ͹ùѴ˹ ¡˹ 1 ¶֧ҳ͹ 1 س 1 ͧ դһҳ 4.2

ö͹ѧҹ͹

            ö͹ѧҹ͹ 繡ö෾ѧҹ͹ҧͧ觷سᵡҧѹ Ըաö͹ѧҹ͹ 3 Ը ѧ
            1. ö͹͹¡ùӤ͹ 繡ö͹͹¤͹͹仵ͧ͢ѵبҡ ˹觷س٧˹觷سԵӡ ·ѵط繵ǡҧ㹡ö͹͹͹ ù šŢͧ俨͹͹šŷ͡ Ѻ͹ҡ鹨֧ѺšŷԴѹ зšŷԴѹ蹵ͧѹ ͹֧١͹¡蹢ͧšŢͧ еҧ Թ ͧ ѵطӤ͹ ֧١ҷҪ㹡ا ѵطӤ͹ըж١ҷөǹѹ͹ ʵԡ ͧ 繵
            2. ö͹͹¡þҤ͹ 繡ö͹͹ѵط繵ǡҧ㹡þҤ͹͹ 仾Ѻ͹ ǡҧ㹡þҤ͹ ֧÷š͹ ͧ 繡͹ͧҡȷҤ͹ҡdz˹ѧ աdz˹ õ ù С÷ʹ繡÷ء¡þҤ͹
            3. ö͹͹¡ѧդ͹ 繡 ͹͹ͧµǡҧ ѧդ͹ҡǧҷԵѧš ѧդ͹ҡѧ÷ҧ 繵

Ť͹

            Ť͹ ¶֧ з÷سԵҧѹʡѹ ж͹͹з÷ͧسҡѹ (شö͹͹) ü͹ѺҴ¡ѹ ͹ж͹ѧҹ͹Ѻ ͹ӷسҡѹ ö͹͹֧ش

ôٴ׹͹ͧѵ

            ѵطءԴöٴ׹ѧҹѧ ôٴ׹ѧҹѧբͧѵ¡ "ôٴ׹͹" ҡä鹾ͧѡԷʵ쾺 ѵطռǹ͡մӷֺ дٴ׹͹ ѵطռǹ͡բ͹ дٴ׹͹ 㹷ӹͧçѹ ѵطդ͹ءԴö¤͹蹡ѹ ѵطռǹ͡մӨФ¤͹ ѵطռǹ͡ǨФ¤͹ 㹪ԵШѹªҡѵԢͧôٴ׹͹Сä¤ ͹ͧѵ㹡͡շػóͧҧ شѡѺԧҧѺѧҹ͹ҡԹ ҹ͹ࢵ͹Ҵբ 繵

âµǢͧѵ

            ѵغҧԴТµѺ͹ Ш˴ͤ¤͹ âµǢͧѵѵ੾еǢͧѵ ѵǹҧҴͧѵط¹ŧ仡ѺҴͧѵص سԷ¹ŧ ¡ "Էͧâµ" ѵ㴷ԷͧâµҡТµҡѵط Էâµǹ س 25 ͧ Фѹҡǡѹ ѧ С Тµҡ仹 ӴѺ
            ͧâµǢͧѵѺ͹ж١ª ҧҧҧ µͧ͢ҧö 鹪ͧҧͧоҹ ûдɰ СõԴᵵ俿 ǺдѺسԢͧͧ俿 繵